Política, Globalidad y Ciudadanía 2023-06-30T16:40:05-05:00 Revista Política, Globalidad y Ciudadanía Open Journal Systems <p><img src="/RPGyC/public/site/images/gabriela/licyindex.jpg" alt="" /><img src="/RPGyC/public/site/images/gabriela/licyindex.jpg" alt="" />Revista Política, Globalidad y Ciudadanía is a scientific journal on Political Science and International Relations (Social Sciences) that promotes the exchange, dissemination and transfer of knowledge in the field, with emphasis on the area of Politics; for this purpose, it is based on the political reality of Latin America and the rest of world. It relies on the quality of scientific production considering systematics and rigor; it uses the Double Blind Review methodology in its peer review process; it publishes original articles, results of research projects and literature reviews under the guidelines of the publishing standards of the American Psychological Association (APA), sixth edition.</p><p><img src="/RPGyC/public/site/images/gabriela/INDEXACIONES6.jpg" alt="" /><br />Revista Política, Globalidad y Ciudadanía welcomes the good practices of the Committee on Publication Ethics; it is edited semi-annually, January-June and July-December, and it is distributed since 2015 under the support of the Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León , in electronic format in Open Access. It spreads its work in Spanish and English and it is addressed to the scientific community in Politics, mainly to researchers and teachers who deal with the field of Political Science and international Relations.</p> Tijuana at the Crossroads of Migration. Laws, Institutions and Budget to Attend to Migrants in a Violent Region 2023-06-30T16:39:42-05:00 David Rocha Romero José Humberto Juárez Márquez Jimmy Emmanuel Ramos Valencia <p>The city of Tijuana has become a necessary stopover for thousands of migrants who, in order to avoid violence and legal complexities, must face a hostile environment. Despite the existence of the Migration Law and the Law on Refugees and Complementary Protection, both from 2011, as well as the creation of the Municipal Directorate of Attention to Migrants (DMAM) in 2015, the Law for the Attention, Protection of the Rights and Support of Migrants in the State of Baja California, enacted in 2021, and the Protocol for Attention to the Migrant Population of 2022, the resources and efforts of the local government are limited, making it difficult to achieve the stated objective of protecting the physical integrity of migrants. The objective of this paper is to explore the legal path followed by those who arrive at the southern border in pursuit of the "American dream", within the context of the violence that has grown exponentially in Mexico and the health emergency caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The results of this study highlight the importance of international organizations and local civil associations as valuable allies of local authorities in Tijuana.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 David Rocha Romero, José Humberto Juárez Márquez, Jimmy Emmanuel Ramos Valencia Transborder cooperation for the development of sustainable cities and communities in the Tijuana - San Diego border region. Review of institutions 2023-06-30T16:39:26-05:00 Alejandro Monjaraz Sandoval Ana Luisa Ramírez Soto <p>The United Nations states that more than half of the world's population lives in cities and the number is expected to increase to 60% by 2030. A metropolitan area that has experienced an accelerated population increase is the Tijuana - San Diego region. These cities are considered twin cities due to their high interaction, joint development and interdependence. This region has a population of more than five million inhabitants, therefore the use of resources and urban needs increase with it. Sustainable development is presented as the best option to face the use of resources in a balanced way without compromising the capacity of future generations. This work has the objective of analyzing the role of transborder cooperation as a fundamental tool for the institutions that are responsible for the sustainable development of cities and communities in the Tijuana - San Diego region, through the binational activity of the institutions in the creation and implementation of urban planning instruments in the region. With the use of the qualitative method of longitudinal character. A classification of urban planning instruments in the region is made from the year 2015 and if they comply with the sustainable and binational approach.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Alejandro Monjaraz Sandoval, Ana Luisa Ramírez Soto Summit of the Americas and the management of the Migration and Development Pact: feasible? 2023-06-30T16:39:24-05:00 José María Ramos García Carlos Barrachina Lisón <p>This article analyzes the importance and contributions of the Ninth Summit of the Americas</p> <p>-hereinafter Summit- held in the city of Los Angeles, CA from June 6 to 10, 2022 and its impact on an agenda for a better management of migration and development in a post- pandemic context. Also, the reflection of the work is aimed at evaluating the feasibility of the implementation of the migration pact signed at the Summit based on the public policy approach. The methodology of the article is based on an analysis of the viability of the policies, considering the governance and public policy approaches. The analysis is based on the main elements considered in the viability of a policy, especially the financial dimension, management and the central categories of governance for results, in particular, coordination, incentives, planning and policy evaluation. The effects of migratory flows during the pandemic have also been complex and varied. For example, the closure of borders and the suspension of asylum processing in the United States has helped to slow the spread of the virus and reduce the risks associated with irregular migration.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 José María Ramos García, Carlos Barrachina Lisón Psycho-social Care in Religious Shelters: An Alternative Approach for Mental Health Treatment of Migrants in Tijuana, Mexico 2023-06-30T16:39:28-05:00 Xochitl Itzel Olmos Herrera Martha Cecilia Jaramillo Cardona Ramiro Jaimes Martínez <p>The aim of this article is to analyze the psycho-social care programs implemented by religious shelters to address the emotional and mental health of migrants. The theories used were the theories of migratory networks, Embodiment and the pyramid of psychosocial attention. We concluded that virtually any environment could trigger a spiritual experience regardless of the presence of religious acts or rites. Also, there is evidence that some places that can generate spiritual feelings more than others. In this project, we found that the shelter “Embajadores de Jesus” (Ambassadors for Jesus) used the circumstances surrounding the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic to prompt migrants to develop their physical and spiritual health.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Xochitl Itzel Olmos Herrera, Martha Cecilia Jaramillo Cardona, Ramiro Jaimes Martínez Climate displaced persons in the neoliberal context: a cycle of socio-environmental degradation 2023-06-30T16:39:15-05:00 Osvaldo Guerrero Guerra Alejandra Guillen Labastida <p>The current political and socioeconomic relations are developed under a neoliberal capitalist economic system, cause certain social and environmental injustices that can be manifested, for example, in that the inhabitants of the regions considered to be the most vulnerable, are forced to move because negatives of climate change. The objective of this article was to show documentary evidence of how this type of displacement cannot and should not be seen only from an environmental lens, but from the entire social, political, and economic context in which they unfold. Through an exploratory study on how environmental and climatic displacements have occurred within the context of neoliberal capitalism in which our globalized world finds itself. This was carried out from a qualitative approach and methodology. The results agreed that the current neoliberal system creates cheap labor, since it is still cheaper to produce in underdeveloped countries where there are fewer labor and environmental regulations. The issue of displacement due to climate change should focus on building the resilience of vulnerable regions with adaptation strategies for negative effects that are difficult to mitigate; and thus prevent more people from having to move in search of better life opportunities, therefore, it is necessary that we work for climate and social justice.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Osvaldo Guerrero Guerra, Alejandra Guillen Labastida Central American dry corridor: a spatial imaginary associated with migration and environmental change 2023-06-30T16:39:11-05:00 Cándido Chan-Pech Vicente Castro Castro Sonia Palomeque Ochoa Margarita Valencia Ruiz <p>The main intention of this article focuses on elevating the construction in the specialized literature of the Central American Dry Corridor (CSC), as an ecoclimatic, spatial imaginary where international organizations and agencies that dedicate efforts to explain mass migration from Central America have built a geographical spectrum as an imagined space of convergence to consider climate change as the main cause of Central American migration. Although in the texts found a series of discursive tensors are observed to correlate these two variables, this serves as narrative food to enrich the imaginary sense through the discussion of phenomenological implications. Under the hermeneutic retina, an analysis of the discourse was carried out, which allowed to notice the existence through the search for the semantic sense in the texts that allude under performative senses to an imaginary of the space-ecoclimatic order; Basically, the document aims to weave three central notions of the CSC as imaginary: the configurative image of a spatio-ecoclimatic imaginary, an imaginary of the future through the description of the present and an imaginary that links climate change in the region as the main initiator of human mobility.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Cándido Chan-Pech, Vicente Castro Castro, Sonia Palomeque Ochoa, Margarita Valencia Ruiz Legalized human settlements: Cagua neighborhood first sector, Soacha, Colombia 2023-06-30T16:39:09-05:00 Juan Sebastián Gómez-Ochoa Karen Andrea Largo-Avendaño Fabio Orlando Cruz-Páez <p>The article was oriented to demonstrate the magnitude of the problems that persisted after the legalization of the Cagua neighborhood first (1st) sector in Soacha, Cundinamarca, identifying the needs that are part of the constitution as an informal settlement. The methodology is of a mixed approach, with a correlational-non-probabilistic design, direct observation was made in the neighborhood between August and December 2022 of the environmental conditions and the quantitative sample was 13 inhabitants, the theoretical variables addressed and of which the results were obtained were urbanization, urban development, human settlement and basic needs, it was concluded that in this way the neighborhood has been legally formalized in 2015 the advances and projects applied to improve the conditions of these settlements have been minimal and are currently being carried out actions to optimize the road network and other activities that have been carried out by the community, such as the construction of collective spaces, including the community hall and initially the aqueduct that worked for the neighborhood, making comprehensive planning necessary to strengthen access to services public, take care of risk mitigation, the construction of equipment’s in order to potentiate the quality of life and the environment.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Juan Sebastián Gómez-Ochoa, Karen Andrea Largo-Avendaño, Fabio Orlando Cruz-Páez Migration to neoliberal Chile: citizenship, roots and autonomy 2023-06-30T16:39:18-05:00 Juan Carlos Rodríguez Torrent Rodrigo Vargas Callegari <p>The growing flow of immigration to Chile and the conditions of settlement have highlighted the existing tension between identity, mobility, borders and nationality within the framework of a neoliberal State with outdated immigration regulations. This article aims to point out the fissures and inconsistencies between the official discourse about a successful and prosperous country, and the true experience of living in Chile. Based on ethnographic and ethnological research, the evidence shows that migrating to Chile can become an exercise in creativity between autonomy and hope, a fact that raises the need to update the composition of an identity model that is sustained in an apparent normality. We conclude that Chile is a much more heterogeneous construction today, and the importance of reviewing the discourses in circulation is revealed to update the identity of sociocultural diversity in Chilean society in later stages.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Juan Carlos Rodríguez Torrent, Rodrigo Vargas Callegari Analysis of income distribution in Tijuana: reconfiguration among urban strata 2023-06-30T16:39:21-05:00 Jocelyne Rabelo Ramirez Karina Salinas Emilio Hernández Erika Chávez <p>Base on the update of a study conducted in 1984 by Mungaray and Moctezuma on the distribution of income and expenditure in Tijuana, the objective of this paper is to analyze the income inequality within the urban area of Tijuana, using as analysis instruments´ the Lorenz curves and Gini indices, considering the income of the head of household and that of the family, for each of the urban strata (privileged, middle and marginal), as well as to make a comparison between the findings of 1984 and that of 2020. Among the results is the fact that, 35 years later, the distribution of income in Tijuana did not experience significant changes; however, once this analysis is disaggregated by urban areas, differences in the income inequality are found, which could suggest a reconfiguration of income distribution within these areas.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Jocelyne Rabelo Ramirez, Karina Salinas, Emilio Hernández Human talent management models in the international context 2023-06-30T16:39:45-05:00 Carlos Huaraca-Carhuaricra <p>The differential value that has been generated by the talent of the workers with their contribution in the institutions that generate economic income in this complex, globalized and competitive world, has led to the management of GT talent being considered as a strategic principle in all institutions. This review article focuses on identifying the GT models in the context of their use as a central practice in organizations, the objective of which is to develop an analysis of the studies that were located in Web or Scopus, Proquest, Scielo and Science journals, at an international level that comprise between the years 2017 to December 2021, to develop the study, a descriptive bibliographic review was carried out, with a qualitative approach, considering 50 articles differentiated in content, time and country of publication, within the results found we can It should be noted that we locate the strategic talent management model with the most articles studied, as findings show the importance of rotation, retention, vision based on long-term strategic resources. Finally, it is necessary to conclude that all the models focus on GT, as a strategy to achieve internal and external competitiveness of their talents in organizations.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Carlos Huaraca-Carhuaricra Migration Policies and Management: Regional Analysis towards Sustainable Development 2023-06-30T16:39:17-05:00 José María Ramos García <p>The special issue of the journal "Politics, Globality, and Citizenship" on management, governance, international migration, and local development is relevant because the chapters address different perspectives on the current situation, policies, and impacts of the largest irregular social and labor mobility in immigration history towards the United States. Additionally, it examines the context and some local and national regional development policies in Peru and Colombia.</p> <p>The migration policy implemented by the administration of former President Donald Trump (2017-2020) towards Mexico was characterized by restrictive and controversial measures, such as family separation, the construction of the border wall, and the implementation of the "Remain in Mexico" program. These policies had a significant impact on migration dynamics and the political relationship between the two countries. With the start of President Joseph R. Biden's term (2021), some changes have been promoted in the immigration policy, recognizing the importance of effective and fair migration governance. The socio-economic context of the post-pandemic era has led to one of the largest human mobilities in the last ten years.</p> <p>The importance of migration governance is reflected in the challenge of promoting humanitarian values, protecting the rights of migrants, and seeking comprehensive and collaborative solutions. These initiatives have been difficult to implement in US immigration policy due to certain restrictive policies still in place</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 José María Ramos García What are the assets that influence poverty in the central macro-region of Peru? Looking for quirks 2023-06-30T16:40:02-05:00 Darlyn Karol Cosme Guzman Claudia Mara Medina Meza Mayly Fiorela Ruiz Mayhuasca Margarita Calle Arancibia <p>The current bibliography deals extensively with the study of poverty, but these neglect the quantitative peculiarities that can be found in the various areas with less access in a country, since they are relegated due to the lack of logistics to obtain reliable data. For this reason, it is important to carry out empirical studies in which particular results can be found. This research sought to determine how the reduction of poverty is influenced by Assets in the central macro-region of Peru in the period 2010-2018 for a sample of 95,056 heads of household.. A non-experimental design was used applying a logistic regression econometric model under the assets approach. Compared to what was expected, it was found that education, the number of members per household and the quality of work are insignificant despite the fact that they are theoretically expected, and it was found that the availability of drinking water, hygienic service, energy, telephony, and possession of title to the home are significant variables that reduce the probability that the home is in poverty. Identifying that in the central macro-region of Peru the assets that really influence the level of poverty are public and institutional physical assets.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Darlyn Karol Cosme Guzman, Claudia Mara Medina Meza, Mayly Fiorela Ruiz Mayhuasca , Margarita Calle Arancibia Public policy through a teleodontological education model 2023-06-30T16:40:05-05:00 Xóchitl A. Arango Morales Idalia Rodríguez Delgado Gerardo Tamez González <p>The isolation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic corroborated the importance of generating programs and even public policies that are established according to remote needs, the use of information technologies to continue with online teaching. The purpose of the research was determining the factors that are necessary for the development of professional skills in online continuing education, at the School of Dentistry of the Autonomous University of Nuevo León. The methodology used has a quantitative approach and was carried out using a questionnaire, designed for the project obtained from previous scientific research considering the variables of teledentistry, education, infrastructure, and technology. This questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 28 teachers and 42 students. According to the results found in the quantitative analysis, it is observed that teachers and students consider it important to use online continuing education through teledentistry to strengthen educational competencies and skills in a virtual way that allow them to improve access to oral health.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Xóchitl A. Arango Morales, Idalia Rodríguez Delgado, Gerardo Tamez González Contractual relationship in Local Public Education Services: analysis from Agency Theory 2023-06-30T16:39:05-05:00 Francisco Ganga-Contreras Carlos Rodríguez-Cisterna Marjorie Tovar-Correal <p>On the other hand, the Local Public Education Services are educational organizations created to restructure the Chilean public education system. In this sense, the objective of this work was to apply the concepts of the Agency Theory, to the Local Services, trying to explain, theoretically, the relationship that exists with the educational establishments of the public system. The methodology used was the interpretative documentary review through content analysis. For this purpose, laws, regulations, decrees and evaluation reports issued by the relevant institutions and scientific articles were reviewed. It is concluded that the Agency Theory allows to analyze the organizational system of Local Services. In this same sense, the figure of principal falls on the executive management of the Local Services and the agents will be the directors of the educational establishments, who through Performance Agreements, determine the terms of the contractual relationship. Along with the above, control mechanisms are observed, which are materialized through the performance agreement, the Local Educational and Strategic Improvement Plan, the latter defines the educational strategy and management for a certain time.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Francisco Ganga-Contreras, Carlos Rodríguez-Cisterna, Marjorie Tovar-Correal