Política, Globalidad y Ciudadanía https://revpoliticas.uanl.mx/index.php/RPGyC <p><img src="/RPGyC/public/site/images/gabriela/licyindex.jpg" alt="" /><img src="/RPGyC/public/site/images/gabriela/licyindex.jpg" alt="" />Revista Política, Globalidad y Ciudadanía is a scientific journal on Political Science and International Relations (Social Sciences) that promotes the exchange, dissemination and transfer of knowledge in the field, with emphasis on the area of Politics; for this purpose, it is based on the political reality of Latin America and the rest of world. It relies on the quality of scientific production considering systematics and rigor; it uses the Double Blind Review methodology in its peer review process; it publishes original articles, results of research projects and literature reviews under the guidelines of the publishing standards of the American Psychological Association (APA), sixth edition.</p><p><img src="/RPGyC/public/site/images/gabriela/INDEXACIONES6.jpg" alt="" /><br />Revista Política, Globalidad y Ciudadanía welcomes the good practices of the Committee on Publication Ethics; it is edited semi-annually, January-June and July-December, and it is distributed since 2015 under the support of the Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León , in electronic format in Open Access. It spreads its work in Spanish and English and it is addressed to the scientific community in Politics, mainly to researchers and teachers who deal with the field of Political Science and international Relations.</p> Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León - UANL en-US Política, Globalidad y Ciudadanía 2395-8448 <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc-nd/4.0/80x15.png" alt="Licencia Creative Commons" /></a><br />Esta obra está bajo una <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" rel="license">Licencia Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 4.0 Internacional</a>.</p> Contemporary Challenges in Latin America: Reflections from Public Policies and International Relations https://revpoliticas.uanl.mx/index.php/RPGyC/article/view/314 <p>Latin America is currently undergoing multidimensional transformations that sometimes even contradict one another, encompassing aspects such as social inclusion and dependence on natural resources. The state currently plays a leading role in institutional and regulatory matters; however, these democracies are marked by poverty, inequality in private property, and organized crime.</p> <p>In this issue of the Scientific Journal on Politics, Globality, and Citizenship, readers will have access to nine articles that delve into essential topics for society, particularly regarding the areas of economy, gender, public policies, tax policy, and international relations. These articles are the result of rigorous research with a comprehensive review, facilitating academic discourse</p> Jorge Isaac Lechuga-Cardozo Copyright (c) 2023 Gabriela Baltodano García https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 10 19 1 3 10.29105/rpgyc10.19-314 What factors influence monetary poverty in the poorest and least poor regions of Peru in the year 2021? A probabilistic estimation https://revpoliticas.uanl.mx/index.php/RPGyC/article/view/269 <p>The objective of the research was to analyze the factors that influence monetary poverty in the Puno and Ica regions in 2021, the most and least poor, respectively. A non-experimental design and correlational method was applied, using data from the National Household Survey through a probabilistic econometric model under the asset approach. It is concluded that in the Puno region, the factors that reduce the probability of being poor are the head of the household's access to the Internet, if he has a secondary education and if he has a cell phone. While in the Ica region, the factors that reduce the probability of being poor is if the head of the household accesses a sewage system and has a formal job. This study evaluates two different socioeconomic contexts and it was found that the main asset that influences both regions is physical capital, on the other hand, human and social capital differ as expected, therefore, it highlights that the possession of assets should be considered in depending on the peculiarity of the region.</p> Sadith Renojo Galvez Valeria Torres Gómez Yohana Falconi Vivas Gustavo Ilich Loayza Acosta Copyright (c) 2023 Sadith Renojo Galvez, Valeria Torres Gómez, Yohana Falconi Vivas, Margarita Calle Arancibia https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 10 19 1 11 10.29105/rpgyc10.19-269 Process Cost Model in the Industrial Sector. Case of Macol®s https://revpoliticas.uanl.mx/index.php/RPGyC/article/view/287 <p>The purpose of this research is to create the design of a system of costs by processes, to find the true cost of production in the Macol®s company, oriented to elaborate and commercialize a hose that is used in irrigation and aqueducts in rural areas. Its raw material corresponds to low-density recovered plastic. The methodology followed is deductive and addresses the quantitative paradigm, with an empirical-analytical approach. An instrument consisting of a set of surveys based on cost accounting, answered by employees and management, is used. The main finding corroborates that the company does not know the true cost of production and, consequently, has been working empirically. By designing a cost system model, it aims to demonstrate that, if the resources used are permanently controlled, their use will be optimized, and the unit cost of production will be identified. The implementation of the project improves the administrative and marketing strategies, so that the company is sustainable; It is understood that identifying unit production costs allows detecting the variation between empirical and technical costs, facilitating timely decision-making by the administration and maintaining a good efficient and effective operation with high competitiveness.</p> Martha Isabel García Cielo Yamileth Collazos- Garzón Concepción Barreda-Ramírez Copyright (c) 2023 Martha Isabel García, Cielo Yamileth Collazos- Garzón, Concepción Barreda-Ramírez https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 10 19 12 23 10.29105/rpgyc10.19-287 Impact of public health policy on decisions of a severe COVID-19 patient https://revpoliticas.uanl.mx/index.php/RPGyC/article/view/213 <p>This article is the product of a literary review whose objective was to analyze heuristics as a process for solving a problem, which helps to identify factors and cognitive biases, to later make a decision. In this research, a qualitative methodology was used, with the documentary review technique and in-depth semi-structured interview, carried out on a sample of 10 case-types, applying a non-probabilistic sampling in people of legal age, diagnosed and medically treated for COVID-19. , who were in serious condition and had the opportunity to express their informed consent to reject or not mechanical ventilation in the State of Nuevo León. The main finding that was obtained was the analysis of factors that influenced the final decisions of the patients interviewed, regarding the treatment and medical care received. From the application of legal heuristics, an exchange was obtained in the interpretation procedure due to its similarity in the cognitive process of decision-making. Finally, it concludes by exposing various factors that influence the decision-making of a patient with COVID-19, in addition to the need to analyze the public health policy for the protection of the rights of patients.</p> Paula Eloisa Lazaro Brenda Judith Sauceda Villeda Copyright (c) 2023 Paula Eloisa Lazaro, Brenda Judith Sauceda Villeda https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 10 19 24 42 10.29105/rpgyc10.19-213 Public Budgets with a Gender Perspective in Latin America https://revpoliticas.uanl.mx/index.php/RPGyC/article/view/307 <p>The general objective of this article was to analyze the incorporation of gender-responsive budgeting in Latin America as a tool for equality. The importance of incorporating public budgets with a gender perspective is crucial because it allows for the redistribution of public resources with an impact on fiscal policies aimed at women, in order to reduce the persistent gender gap in Latin American countries. The research was qualitative, exploratory and descriptive. We worked with the analysis of documentary sources and qualitative data. The incorporation of gender-sensitive budgets is an advance in terms of gender parity, although in practice it presents limitations typical of bureaucratic systems and persistent inequalities in Latin America as a result of the presence of historical, social and cultural structures that favor the maintenance of these inequalities in relation to women.</p> Ingrid Rosas Villarrubia Copyright (c) 2023 Ingrid Rosas Villarrubia https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 10 19 43 59 10.29105/rpgyc10.19-307 Consequences of the Pandemic on Competitiveness in the Pacific Alliance https://revpoliticas.uanl.mx/index.php/RPGyC/article/view/289 <p>This article aimed to analyze the main consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for competitiveness in the Pacific Alliance, compared to the objectives proposed by this regional integration, considering the short, medium and long-term impacts. A qualitative approach was used with an interpretive scope, non-experimental and transversal design. Documentary information was collected on strategies, decisions and results of the main strategic objectives in the organizations of the signatory countries: Chile, Colombia, Peru and Mexico. It was found that the incidence of COVID-19 caused important effects on infrastructure, innovation, technology and operational efficiency. As a consequence of these effects, the adoption of 4.0 technologies and remote work models in various sectors has also accelerated, which has led to the implementation of policies to stimulate the reactivation of the economy. In this context, the Pacific Alliance promotes economic recovery and strengthen regional integration; However, the agreement has faced challenges given the decline in international trade and the vulnerability derived from rising raw material prices. It is concluded that economic reactivation will require the attention of governments in the most affected sectors and the diversification of trade relations with multiple countries and regions.</p> Daniel Salazar Rodríguez Sebastián Rodríguez Ramírez María Erika Narváez Ferrin Copyright (c) 2023 Daniel Salazar Rodríguez, Sebastián Rodríguez Ramírez, María Erika Narváez Ferrin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 10 19 60 76 10.29105/rpgyc10.19-289 Otherness and International Relations: an episteme transcendent to the social sciences? https://revpoliticas.uanl.mx/index.php/RPGyC/article/view/309 <p>The aim of this paper is to analyze to what extent the discipline of International Relations, thanks to its ontological need to study otherness, would be better placed than other fields of knowledge to transcend the solipsism on which the community's membership of every paradigm is defined. The article practiced a qualitative design, based on an analytical-conceptual approach. A critical examination of sociology and the history of international relations was carried out, also appealing to analytical categories from the philosophy of science and epistemology in order to prove that the discipline of reference would be, at least in principle, more supportive of the representations of the reality of otherness than third fields of knowledge. It was found that such a thesis is grounded on the premise that International Relations, by requiring the study of perspectives that are diverse and even contradictory to those from which the examination of the cognizing subject is based, invites a critical reflection, which would allow us to question the cognitive immobilism that all epistemic communities, to a greater or lesser extent, embrace.</p> Julio Francisco Villarreal García Fanny Verónica Marrache Díaz Gilmer Alarcón Requejo Andrea Alejandra Carrion Loyola Copyright (c) 2023 Julio Francisco Villarreal García, Fanny Verónica Marrache Díaz, Gilmer Alarcón Requejo, Andrea Alejandra Carrion Loyola https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 10 19 77 88 10.29105/rpgyc10.19-309 Accountability in the Comprehensive System for peace in Colombia 2018-2022 https://revpoliticas.uanl.mx/index.php/RPGyC/article/view/308 <p>The objective of this article is to examine from a critical and constructive perspective what are the effects of accountability that impact society from the three entities of the Comprehensive System for Peace - SIP of Colombia (Jurisdicción Especial para la Paz -JEP,&nbsp; la Comisión para el Esclarecimiento de la Verdad, la Convivencia y la No Repetición – CEV y la Unidad de Búsqueda de Personas dadas por Desaparecidas en el Contexto y en Razón del Conflicto Armado -UBPD) between the years 2018 and 2022. The methodology implemented was documentary review and analysis of institutional documents, scientific articles from Publindex, Web of Science, Scopus, Latindex, Redalyc, Scielo, MIAR and undergraduate and master's theses. It was evident that in the armed conflict that Colombia sustained for more than 50 years, the country is immersed in actions that trigger social impacts and that for accountability on the part of the SIP entities, the greatest investment is made in the operation of the entities with the purpose of investing and managing for the victims of the conflict and the relatives of people reported missing with actions that clarify what happened.</p> Fabio Orlando Cruz Páez Copyright (c) 2023 Fabio Orlando Cruz Páez https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 10 19 89 107 10.29105/rpgyc10.19-308 The indispensable Tax Reform in Mexico for 2024 https://revpoliticas.uanl.mx/index.php/RPGyC/article/view/247 <p><em>This work follows the deductive method, with a hermeneutic paradigm and a qualitative approach. Mexico is a country that lives a brutal income inequality, the country's tax burden in 2021 is 14.7% of GDP (without social security contributions) when on average Latin American countries have 17.9% and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 24.6% of GDP, a very deep difference of 10 percentage points. In view of this, a tax reform is essential, which in a first stage should seek to equalize with Latin American countries and in a second stage to get as close as possible to the OECD countries.</em></p> José Antonio Villalobos Copyright (c) 2023 José Antonio Villalobos https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 10 19 108 125 10.29105/rpgyc10.19-247 Analysis of organizational problems in companies in the municipalities of Facatativá and Chía in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia https://revpoliticas.uanl.mx/index.php/RPGyC/article/view/313 <p>The general objective of this article was to analyze the main organizational problems perceived by employees of companies located in the municipalities of Facatativá and Chía in the department of Cundinamarca, which may have a considerable impact on performance and productivity in the short, medium and long term. Taking into account a non-experimental methodology, whose typology was descriptive transversal, a Likert-type questionnaire was applied as an instrument, which was evaluated on a scale of 0 to 5, according to the following criteria: 0 (the problem has never arisen), 1 (at some point it has arisen), 2 (it has arisen a few times), 3 (it often arises), 4 (it arises many times) and 5 (it always arises); said questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample, with an intentional approach, to 161 collaborators belonging to 50 companies. It was found that work overload is frequent in 22%, poor unity of command in 21%, work conformism in 20%, work stress in 20%, poor work integration among employees in 19% and work dissatisfaction in 19%, which have a direct impact on performance.</p> César Augusto Giraldo Duque Benjamín Andrés Manjarrés Zárate Juan Román Ávila Meléndez Copyright (c) 2023 César Augusto Giraldo Duque, Benjamín Andrés Manjarrés Zárate, Juan Román Ávila Meléndez https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 10 19 126 140 10.29105/rpgyc10.19-313